In the class of close-binary systems, there are two types which are wholly unsuitable for habitable systems: semi-detached binaries and contact binaries.
With semi-detached binaries, one of the stars has filled its Roche lobe (the actual physical material of the star has exceeded its own gravitational domain; see below), and begins to lose material to the companion.
In contact binaries, both stars have filled their Roche lobes and begin to share material between them, in some cases actually merging. When such a merger is stable, the resulting body can “…behave like a star at an earlier stage in its evolution…” because the two stars merge by “…mixing their nuclear fuel and re-stoking the fires of nuclear fusion.”  This is related to the way blue stragglers form in globular clusters.
The remaining type, detached binaries, can be classed as either close- or wide-binaries, and these are what concern us here.
For close-binaries (also known as "Tatooine" systems), the stars orbit one another at distances between [0.15, 6.0] AU.
Note: It will be necessary to choose either their average separation or their orbital period as a first step, and then calculate the other from the chosen value.
Bear in mind: for habitable systems, under no circumstances should close-binary stars be placed closer than 0.10 AU from one another, or they risk becoming semi-detached or contact binary systems.
Separation and orbital period are interdependent quantities; either can be calculated when the other is known, but neither is dictated by the fundamental properties of the stars.
Both stars’ orbits will have the same eccentricity, and thus the same orbital period, but the eccentricity must be arbitrarily chosen; nothing in the fundamental data of the stars dictates the value of the orbital eccentricity. This gives the worldbuilder a delightful range of configurations from which to choose.
The farthest possible separation between the two stars is determined by the Hill sphere of the Primary, but this will usually be measured in terms of light years rather than astronomical units, and the farther away the Secondary is, the more likely that its orbit will be catastrophically disturbed by other passing stars, galactic bow shocks, encounters with interstellar dust clouds, etc., so it is best for habitable systems to keep the maximum separation below about 600 AU.
For the Sun, the Hill Sphere extends to about 1 light year (~63,000 AU), which equates to an orbital period for a Secondary of nearly 16 million years. At such a distance the orbital speed of the companion star would mean that it would not move in the sky appreciably within the lifespan of any indigenous civilization.
In the sections that follow, we will look at both close- and wide-binary star systems.
The Primary Star
The Primary can be of any mass between 0.08 and ~150 solar masses, but if you want a human-habitable system, then the mass range for the primary should fall between 0.6 and 1.4 solar masses:
The Secondary Star
Based on observation  there does seem to be a relationship between the orbital eccentricity of binary systems and their orbital period:
The Roche Lobe
Calculating Roche Lobes
Nevertheless, I include a more complex and precise set of equations directly after the first set, for those who wish to have the information.
Approximate Roche Lobe Calculations
More Precise Roche Lobe Calculations
Calculating the Barycenter of Binary Systems
Calculating the Minimum and Maximum Separation of the two stars
Orbital Period of Binary Systems
Innermost Stable Orbit from the Barycenter
the no-Go (forbidden) Zone
Habitable Zones and the Frost Line
The Frost Line in Close-binary systems
Maximum Planetary Orbits in wide-binary systems